Free yourself from data and trust your feelings

Fernando arcos pexelsFernando Arcos - Pexels

What indicators do you base yourself on to assess your daily shape? What diagnosis do you base yourself on in order to know whether your next training session will be light, moderate or intense? In a previous post, I told you about the danger of being obsessively preoccupied by data. Personally, I trust the short moment of introspection which allows me to connect to myself rather than the link which is automatically produced by the latest cutting-edge application on my smartphone that promises to inform me about my shape… The visual analogic scale which is proposed by Laurent et al. (2011) invites you to estimate your perceived level of recovery. Using it before a training session is a practical way of assessing your recovery day after day and that way to estimate your performance level over the next session: 

Laurent 1One of the main features of our society is the omnipresence of data, a huge yearning for untreated data, and figures. Objective data is king, and leaves little room for the development of a critical mindset, self-awareness, and education. The sport’s world does not escape from this avalanche of data and reports. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in order to compare the relevance of objective markers assessed during off time and training (blood markers, heart rate) as opposed to subjective markers (e.g. mood, perceived stress) to follow up on the responses to training load variations in athletes. The main outcomes showed that subjective data reflects training load variations more accurately than objective data. Thus, depending on the authors and as part of the athlete’s daily follow-up, subjective markers should play a key role in assessing the athlete’s shape in response to the training load; and objective data, which displays a high level of scientific evidence, should only complete this assessment. This subjective data will be all the more reliable because the athlete will have been early accustomed to listening to him(her)self and taking decisions based on his(her) perception. Finally, as suggests James Williams, an ex-Googler who stepped down in order to become a philosopher: “On the short term, these tools (i.e. new technology) distract us from the things we should be doing. On the long term, they can distract us from the life we wish to lead… These technologies put our instincts before our intentions”. For every one of us, it means taking back control over our relationship with technology in order for it not to disrupt our precious path to self-awareness.

Napping: sleepiness or sleepability?

What about you, are you a napping enthusiast?

Mateusz dach

Mateusz Dach

We are progressively coming out of lockdown. This unprecedented period will have upset a good deal of our habits. Let’s take the example of Axel, a young executive who found himself working from home overnight. But can we truly speak of remote working to qualify a similar work load which needs to be done in a productive and efficient time which is very condensed and requires to be carried out during two toddlers’ napping time? Indeed, Axel hasn’t had the time to nap since the beginning of the lockdown. Just after a mentally-exhausting morning, followed by a very quick lunch, the start of the kids’ napping time kicks off a period of work which he hopes to be as productive as possible. We can identify three types of naps, depending on the objective: preventing or prevailing against the diurnal sleepiness? Have you ever experienced that feeling of drowsiness that you usually come at the beginning of the afternoon and which can be a symptom of sleep debt?

A preventive nap is taken in anticipation of a future sleep restriction;

A compensatory nap is taken after a sleep restriction;

The “appetitive” nap is taken for comfort or pleasure. A study even showed that an “appetitive” nap, with an immediate sleep initiation, was associated to better nocturnal sleep quality, and was not linked to diurnal sleepiness. So, napping: sleepiness or sleepability? Another study which was carried out among elite athletes showed that they went to sleep faster compared to active subjects. This was the case for the first - which fits the challenge of sleeping in a new sleeping environment - and the second nap of the study. These results remained valid in mathematical models which controlled sleepiness and the amount of sleep gathered prior to the experiment. In other terms, the ability to fall asleep at one’s pleasure could be linked to a certain training, and not only to previous sleep restriction-induced pressure. As children are gradually allowed back at the nursery, Alex will make the most of this afternoon to give the “appetitive” nap a shot! Contrary to pre-conceived ideas, this could even help him enjoy a better night’s sleep tonight!                 

Mathieu Nedelec, sport scientist in charge of research projects on sleep and recovery. I teach best practices to improve sleep and performance. I will read your answers carefully and let you know when my next posts will be published.

Evening exercise and sleep

Evening work-out or a good night’s sleep: do we really have to choose? 



Monday night, 10:30pm in Paris. As one of January’s cold snaps hits me, I walk home as briskly as possible. When turning a corner, I am attracted by a particularly bright window. As I get closer, a loud and catchy song becomes clearer to me. A gym! Behind the window, a dozen athletes are trying to keep up with the coach’s pace. A barely visible drop of sweat is running down his forehead, and he has the decency at the end of the class not to tell his students that it is his seventh class of the day… This ordinary urban event is the opportunity to answer one of the most frequently asked questions during my interventions: “does evening exercise disrupt my sleep?”.

Medical doctors and public opinion generally tend to discourage intense evening exercise, during the period leading to bedtime. Such an exercise would impair the quality of sleep during the following night. Today, there is very little proof in scientific literature to support the evening sofa option rather than outdoor running or on a treadmill in the gym. In 1976, Browman and Tepas certainly showed an increase in sleep onset latency - or the time required to fall asleep - following late-night exercise. The significant increase in sleep onset latency was of 6 minutes after a 45-min cycling session performed only five minutes prior to bedtime! As fast as you may be to shower, go home and enjoy a little snack, we can bet that the recovery period between the end of your session and bedtime is longer… Several studies have shown the lack of effect or even positive changes on sleep from an evening exercise. For example, Buman et al. (2014) have shown, in a large cohort of 1 000 adults, that fans of evening exercise - performed less than 4 hours before bedtime - display a similar sleep or a better sleep on exercising days compared to resting days. What’s more, a meta-analysis gathering the results of almost 3 000 adults concluded that exercising less than 3 hours prior to bedtime is beneficial for sleep, i.e. less wake after sleep onset and less light sleep     throughout the night (Kredlow et al., 2015). And what about exercise intensity? Performing an exercise subjectively perceived as difficult one and a half hours before bedtime is associated with better sleep quality and a reduction in sleep onset latency (Brand et al., 2014).

Our core body temperature follows a circadian rhythm, very close to 24 hours. It is at its lowest around 3:00 or 4:00am and increases progressively before peaking between 6:00 and 8:00pm. Between these hours, is the ideal window to outdo your personal record! Sleep initiation is then linked to a decrease of your core temperature (approximately 0.5 to 1°C) and deep sleep is made more possible during the first part of the night if our core body temperature is reduced. The general advice of not exercising in the evening is mainly based on the assumption that evening exercise, especially if intensely performed, will increase core body temperature and threaten sleep quality. Reality is much more complex. To see clearer, we studied the influence of a high-intensity trail undergone in the lab at 9:00pm on well-trained runners’ sleep assessed by polysomnography (maximal aerobic speed superior to 18 km/h and VO2max of 70mL/min/kg). Results showed a slight change in sleep architecture during the night after exercising compared to the control condition. Core body temperature and heart rate were significantly increased throughout the first part of the night compared to the control condition. Another article which was published at the same time (Thomas et al., 2019) showed that an intermittent running exercise (6 sets of 5 minutes at 90% VO2peak; and 5 minutes recovery) at 6:00pm increased total sleep quantity during the subsequent night, even though an increase in heart rate was also observed.

It seems that evening exercising and a good night’s sleep are compatible! Regular physical activity paves the way to good sleep and long-term health. In order to maximise your chances, here is my list of strategies to favour your sleep after exercising in the evening:

1. Limit light exposition, especially to screens, and possibly wear tinted glasses.

2. Choose a milky beverage over water to ensure rehydration

3. Eat a high glycemic-index snack

4. Drink tart cheery juice and food rich in tryptophan (e.g. turkey, pumpkin seeds)

5. Set up an adequate sleeping environment: cool (18 to 19°C), peaceful and dark

6. Try out breathing exercises, which we will discuss next time

Mathieu Nedelec, sport scientist in charge of research projects on sleep and recovery. I teach best practices to improve sleep and performance. I will read your answers carefully and let you know when my next posts will be published.

Sleep in Western countries

And what about you, do you get enough sleep?

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Here we are in 2020 and it’s already a new decade. New Year’s night was a very short, festive and maybe even sleepless one for some of you. And what if taking care of your sleep was your new year’s resolution? Surveys led by public health authorities in Western countries are clear. A large proportion of us doesn’t get enough sleep. French people, for example, sleep on average 6 hours and 42 minutes per 24-hour cycle. The average sleep duration has reached the critical level of less than 7 hours! This is a public health issue. An organization of sleep experts recently penned an article with the provocative title: “Our lack of sleep is killing us”. Approximately 30% of the population sleeps less than 7 hours a night. During one of your next nightly awakenings, just be curious and look out of your window onto the sleeping city. You will then be able to count the lit-up windows, rather than sheep, and will realize that you are far from being the only one… However, sleep plays a crucial part in physical (thanks to deep sleep) and psychological recovery (the role of rapid eye movement REM sleep). The recommended sleep duration for an adult between the ages of 18 and 65 is anywhere between 7 to 9 hours. Rest assured: solutions exist! First of all, sleep must be reinserted into a general context of sleep-wake rhythms. The quality of your night will depend on the quality of your day. Regular physical activity and good emotional management are already strong allies. Moreover, similarly to a switch, strategies exist in order to easily switch from wake to sleep mode throughout the evening. And then swiftly from sleep to wake mode in the early hours of the morning. Light therapies, nutrition, bedding, cooling down, sleep extension, etc. are examples of some of these strategies. Several scientific studies have revealed the superiority of cognitive behavioural therapies over sleeping pills, without the potential side effects linked to the intake of medication. There is an urge to take action and care for your sleep! We will accompany you in this ever-so-crucial process.

Mathieu Nedelec, sport scientist in charge of research projects on sleep and recovery. I teach best practices to improve sleep and performance. I will read your answers carefully and let you know when my next posts will be published.